Thursday, September 18, 2014

New Executive Actions to Combat Antibiotic Resistance and Protect Public Health

New Executive Actions to Combat Antibiotic Resistance and Protect Public Health


Today, the Obama administration is announcing a comprehensive set of new federal actions to combat the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and protect public health. Additionally, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) is releasing a related report on Combating Antibiotic Resistance.
The discovery of antibiotics in the early 20th century fundamentally transformed medicine; antibiotics now save millions of lives each year in the United States and around the world. Yet bacteria repeatedly exposed to the same antibiotics can become resistant to even the most potent drugs. These so-called antibiotic-resistant bacteria can present a serious threat to public health, national security, and the economy.
In fact, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, antibiotic-resistant infections are associated with an additional 23,000 deaths and 2 million illnesses in the United States each year. The estimated annual impact of antibiotic-resistant infections on the national economy is $20 billion in excess direct health care costs, and as much as $35 billion in lost productivity from hospitalizations and sick days. Antibiotics are also critical to many modern medical interventions, including chemotherapy, surgery, dialysis, and organ transplantation.
The Administration is ramping up our efforts to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria through a series of new actions including:
  • An Executive Order directing the federal government to work domestically and internationally to reduce the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and to help ensure the continued availability of effective treatments for bacterial infections. The Executive Order establishes a new interagency Task Force and Federal Advisory Council and includes calls for better monitoring of resistant infections, improved regulations governing antibiotic use, more robust research to develop new and effective methods for combating antibiotic resistance, and increased international cooperation to curb the global rise in resistant bacteria. Importantly, the Executive Order directs the new interagency Task Force to develop a five-year National Action Plan for implementing both the National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, which includes goals, milestones, and assessment metrics for detecting, preventing, and controlling antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and to address the new PCAST report.
  • A National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, which articulates national goals, priorities, and specific objectives that provide an overarching framework for federal investments aimed at combating antibiotic resistance. These include: preventing the spread of resistant bacteria; strengthening national efforts to identify instances of antibiotic resistance; working to develop new antibiotics, therapies, and vaccines; and improving international collaboration on this issue.  
  • A new PCAST report entitled Combating Antibiotic Resistance, containing recommendations that were developed by PCAST in consultation with a diverse group of experts that span the human and veterinary sectors for actions that the federal government can take to strengthen the nation’s ability to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
  • The launch of a $20 million prize sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, and the Food and Drug Administration to facilitate the development of a rapid diagnostic test to be used by health care providers to identify highly resistant bacterial infections at the point of patient care.
These actions will help the nation contain the spread of resistant bacterial strains, manage existing antibiotics to prevent the development of new resistant strains, and help guarantee a steady pipeline of new, effective antibiotics and diagnostics. Most importantly, these actions will help save thousands of lives each year.

Learn more:
Lisa Monaco is Assistant to the President for Homeland Security & Counterterrorism. Dr. John P. Holdren is Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

 


 

BRAVO !

 

when you can’t fix stupid simply because of money, somebody has to do something...

 

BRAVO !

 

 

Sunday, September 22, 2013


 


Livestock Origin for a Human Pandemic Clone of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

 
http://staphmrsa.blogspot.com/2013/09/livestock-origin-for-human-pandemic.html
 
 

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

 

Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 THREAT REPORT

 
 
http://staphmrsa.blogspot.com/2013/09/antibiotic-resistance-threats-in-united.html


 

 

TSS

 

Sunday, September 22, 2013

Livestock Origin for a Human Pandemic Clone of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Livestock Origin for a Human Pandemic Clone of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus


 

 
  1. The Roslin Institute and Edinburgh Infectious Diseases, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, United Kingdoma
  2. University of Cambridge, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Cambridge, United Kingdomb
  3. Institute of Evolutionary Biology, Ashworth Laboratories, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdomc
  4. National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby, Denmarkd
  5. Microbiology Services, Colindale, Health Protection Agency, London, United Kingdome
  6. Department of Antimicrobial Surveillance and Research, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmarkf
  1. Address correspondence to J. Ross Fitzgerald, Ross.Fitzgerald{at}ed.ac.uk.
  1. Editor Fernando Baquero, Ramón y Cajal University Hospital

 

ABSTRACT

 


The importance of livestock as a source of bacterial pathogens with the potential for epidemic spread in human populations is unclear. In recent years, there has been a global increase in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections of healthy humans, but an understanding of the different evolutionary origins of CA-MRSA clones and the basis for their recent expansion is lacking. Here, using a high-resolution phylogenetic approach, we report the discovery of two emergent clones of human epidemic CA-MRSA which resulted from independent livestock-to-human host jumps by the major bovine S. aureus complex, CC97. Of note, one of the new clones was isolated from human infections on four continents, demonstrating its global dissemination since the host jump occurred over 40 years ago. The emergence of both human S. aureus clones coincided with the independent acquisition of mobile genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance and human-specific mediators of immune evasion, consistent with an important role for these genetic events in the capacity to survive and transmit among human populations. In conclusion, we provide evidence that livestock represent a reservoir for the emergence of new human-pathogenic S. aureus clones with the capacity for pandemic spread. These findings have major public health implications highlighting the importance of surveillance for early identification of emergent clones and improved transmission control measures at the human-livestock interface.
 


IMPORTANCE Animals are the major source of new pathogens affecting humans. However, the potential for pathogenic bacteria that originally were found in animals to switch hosts and become widely established in human populations is not clear. Here, we report the discovery of emergent clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that originated in livestock and switched to humans, followed by host-adaptive evolution and epidemic spread in global human populations. Our findings demonstrate that livestock can act as a reservoir for the emergence of new human bacterial clones with potential for pandemic spread, highlighting the potential role of surveillance and biosecurity measures in the agricultural setting for preventing the emergence of new human pathogens.

 

Footnotes



  • Citation Spoor LE, McAdam PR, Weinert LA, Rambaut A, Hasman H, Aarestrup FM, Kearns AM, Larsen AR, Skov RL, Fitzgerald JR. 2013. Livestock origin for a human pandemic clone of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. mBio 4(4):e00356-13. doi:10.1128/mBio.00356-13.

  • Received 20 May 2013
  • Accepted 14 June 2013
  • Published 13 August 2013


This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license, which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

 


 


 

Veterinary Record 173:260 doi:10.1136/vr.f5488

  • News and Report

  • Research


Study reveals bovine origin for human MRSA strain

 
 
 
A RECENT study has suggested a type of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus found in people originated in cattle at least 40 years ago. Researchers say that their work provides clear evidence that livestock were the original source of the MRSA strain, which is now widespread in the human population.
The researchers, from a number of different institutions, including the Roslin Institute and Cambridge veterinary school, …


http://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/content/173/11/260.1.extract.html?etoc





Tuesday, September 17, 2013


Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 THREAT REPORT

“We continue to promote the concept that, if an animal is sick, using antibiotics to treat that animal is obviously important,” said CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden. “We also know that there are specific situations in which the widespread use of antimicrobials in agriculture has resulted in an increase in resistant infections in humans.”

http://staphmrsa.blogspot.com/2013/09/antibiotic-resistance-threats-in-united.html
 
 
 
 
kind regards,
terry
 

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 THREAT REPORT

About 80 percent of all antibiotics distributed in the U.S. were for food animals, and CSPI has documented 55 foodborne illness outbreaks between 1973 and 2011 where the bacteria identified were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Thirty-four of those outbreaks occurred since 2000.

“Because of the link between antibiotic use in food-producing animals and the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant infections in humans, antibiotics should be used in food-producing animals only under veterinary oversight and only to manage and treat infectious diseases, not to promote growth,” reads the report.

“We continue to promote the concept that, if an animal is sick, using antibiotics to treat that animal is obviously important,” said CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden. “We also know that there are specific situations in which the widespread use of antimicrobials in agriculture has resulted in an increase in resistant infections in humans.”



http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2013/09/drug-resistant-infections/#.Ujhl1owo4qQ





http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/





Threat Report 2013


This report, Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 gives a first-ever snapshot of the burden and threats posed by the antibiotic-resistant germs having the most impact on human health. 

Each year in the United States, at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result of these infections. Many more people die from other conditions that were complicated by an antibiotic-resistant infection.

Antibiotic-resistant infections can happen anywhere. Data show that most happen in the general community; however, most deaths related to antibiotic resistance happen in healthcare settings such as hospitals and nursing homes.

What's in the Report

Foreword Adobe PDF file [page 5]
Executive Summary Adobe PDF file [page 6]
Section 1: The Threat of Antibiotic Resistance Adobe PDF file [page 11]
Section 2: Fighting Back Against Antibiotic Resistance Adobe PDF file [page 31]
Four Core Actions to Prevent Antibiotic Resistance Adobe PDF file [page 31]
Section 3: Current Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States,
by Microorganism
 Adobe PDF file [page 49]
Microorganisms with a Threat Level of Urgent

Microorganisms with a Threat Level of Serious

Microorganisms with a Threat Level of Concerning
Technical Appendix Adobe PDF file [page 93]
Glossary Adobe PDF file [page 107]
Acknowledgements Adobe PDF file [page 112]
 

Download the 2013 Report now » Adobe PDF file [PDF - 114 pages 4.18mb]
 
http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf

http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/

 
 
Tuesday, July 16, 2013
 
Livestock-Associated Methicillin and Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Is Present among Industrial, Not Antibiotic-Free Livestock Operation Workers in North Carolina
 
Research Article
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, January 2, 2013
 
New MRSA ST398 superbug strain found in UK milk Occupational risk factor
 
Rapid communications
 
 
 
 
Thursday, March 1, 2012
 
Staphylococcus aureus CC398: Host Adaptation and Emergence of Methicillin Resistance in Livestock
 
 
 
 
Thursday, February 9, 2012
 
Occurrence and distribution of Staphylococcus aureuslineages among zoo animals
 
 
 
 
Tuesday, January 17, 2012
 
In-feed antibiotic effects on the swine intestinal microbiome
 
 
 
 
Thursday, June 9, 2011
 
New Superbug Found in Cows and People
 
 
 
 
Wednesday, May 11, 2011
 
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Retail Meat, Detroit, Michigan, USA
 
 
 
 
Monday, April 18, 2011
 
Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in US Meat and Poultry
 
 
 
 
that MRSA is some nasty stuff. damn near killed me in 2001 after one of my neck surgeries. 8 weeks vancomycin via long PIC line straight to the heart. nasty, nasty stuff. ...


 
 

 
 
 
TSS