Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Time-Scaled Evolutionary Analysis of the Transmission and Antibiotic Resistance Dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 398

Time-Scaled Evolutionary Analysis of the Transmission and Antibiotic Resistance Dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 398


  1. M. E. J. Woolhousea
  1. aCentre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
  2. bThe Roslin Institute and Edinburgh Infectious Diseases, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom
  3. cScottish MRSA Reference Laboratory, National Health Service Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, United Kingdom

  1. C. A. Elkins, Editor
+ Author Affiliations

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (CC398) is associated with disease in humans and livestock, and its origins and transmission have generated considerable interest. We performed a time-scaled phylogenetic analysis of CC398, including sequenced isolates from the United Kingdom (Scotland), along with publicly available genomes. Using state-of-the-art methods for mapping traits onto phylogenies, we quantified transitions between host species to identify sink and source populations for CC398 and employed a novel approach to investigate the gain and loss of antibiotic resistance in CC398 over time. We identified distinct human- and livestock-associated CC398 clades and observed multiple transmissions of CC398 from livestock to humans and between countries, lending quantitative support to previous reports. Of note, we identified a subclade within the livestock-associated clade comprised of isolates from hospital environments and newborn babies, suggesting that livestock-associated CC398 is capable of onward transmission in hospitals. In addition, our analysis revealed significant differences in the dynamics of resistance to methicillin and tetracycline related to contrasting historical patterns of antibiotic usage between the livestock industry and human medicine. We also identified significant differences in patterns of gain and loss of different tetracycline resistance determinants, which we ascribe to epistatic interactions between the resistance genes and/or differences in the modes of inheritance of the resistance determinants.

snip...

In conclusion, we have performed a time-scaled phylogenetic analysis of CC398 and provided a quantitative understanding of the circulation of CC398 through separate human- and livestock-associated lineages, but with livestock also a significant source of human infection. We have also carried out a quantitative phylogenetic analysis of the loss and gain of antibiotic resistance determinants. However, human and livestock populations are linked in many ways, including agriculture, the food chain, and shared environments (39). In the future, further studies of a range of bacterial species and strains, using a large number of sequences from numerous potential sources of infection, are required to develop a more detailed understanding of the spread of bacteria and antibiotic resistance.

http://aem.asm.org/content/80/23/7275.full

http://staphmrsa.blogspot.com/


 TSS

Thursday, September 18, 2014

New Executive Actions to Combat Antibiotic Resistance and Protect Public Health

New Executive Actions to Combat Antibiotic Resistance and Protect Public Health


Today, the Obama administration is announcing a comprehensive set of new federal actions to combat the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and protect public health. Additionally, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) is releasing a related report on Combating Antibiotic Resistance.
The discovery of antibiotics in the early 20th century fundamentally transformed medicine; antibiotics now save millions of lives each year in the United States and around the world. Yet bacteria repeatedly exposed to the same antibiotics can become resistant to even the most potent drugs. These so-called antibiotic-resistant bacteria can present a serious threat to public health, national security, and the economy.
In fact, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, antibiotic-resistant infections are associated with an additional 23,000 deaths and 2 million illnesses in the United States each year. The estimated annual impact of antibiotic-resistant infections on the national economy is $20 billion in excess direct health care costs, and as much as $35 billion in lost productivity from hospitalizations and sick days. Antibiotics are also critical to many modern medical interventions, including chemotherapy, surgery, dialysis, and organ transplantation.
The Administration is ramping up our efforts to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria through a series of new actions including:
  • An Executive Order directing the federal government to work domestically and internationally to reduce the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and to help ensure the continued availability of effective treatments for bacterial infections. The Executive Order establishes a new interagency Task Force and Federal Advisory Council and includes calls for better monitoring of resistant infections, improved regulations governing antibiotic use, more robust research to develop new and effective methods for combating antibiotic resistance, and increased international cooperation to curb the global rise in resistant bacteria. Importantly, the Executive Order directs the new interagency Task Force to develop a five-year National Action Plan for implementing both the National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, which includes goals, milestones, and assessment metrics for detecting, preventing, and controlling antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and to address the new PCAST report.
  • A National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, which articulates national goals, priorities, and specific objectives that provide an overarching framework for federal investments aimed at combating antibiotic resistance. These include: preventing the spread of resistant bacteria; strengthening national efforts to identify instances of antibiotic resistance; working to develop new antibiotics, therapies, and vaccines; and improving international collaboration on this issue.  
  • A new PCAST report entitled Combating Antibiotic Resistance, containing recommendations that were developed by PCAST in consultation with a diverse group of experts that span the human and veterinary sectors for actions that the federal government can take to strengthen the nation’s ability to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
  • The launch of a $20 million prize sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, and the Food and Drug Administration to facilitate the development of a rapid diagnostic test to be used by health care providers to identify highly resistant bacterial infections at the point of patient care.
These actions will help the nation contain the spread of resistant bacterial strains, manage existing antibiotics to prevent the development of new resistant strains, and help guarantee a steady pipeline of new, effective antibiotics and diagnostics. Most importantly, these actions will help save thousands of lives each year.

Learn more:
Lisa Monaco is Assistant to the President for Homeland Security & Counterterrorism. Dr. John P. Holdren is Assistant to the President for Science and Technology and Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

 


 

BRAVO !

 

when you can’t fix stupid simply because of money, somebody has to do something...

 

BRAVO !

 

 

Sunday, September 22, 2013


 


Livestock Origin for a Human Pandemic Clone of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

 
http://staphmrsa.blogspot.com/2013/09/livestock-origin-for-human-pandemic.html
 
 

Tuesday, September 17, 2013

 

Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 THREAT REPORT

 
 
http://staphmrsa.blogspot.com/2013/09/antibiotic-resistance-threats-in-united.html


 

 

TSS