Tuesday, December 1, 2009

EFSA publishes results of the first survey on MRSA in pigs in the EU

Press Release 24 November 2009 EFSA publishes results of the first survey on MRSA in pigs in the EU

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published the first EU-wide survey on MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) in breeding pigs. The results indicate that MRSA, a bacterium resistant to many antibiotics, is commonly detected in holdings with breeding pigs in some EU Member States. The survey provides estimates of its occurrence and makes recommendations for further monitoring and investigation of the causes and implications of MRSA findings in pig holdings in the EU. The survey was carried out in 24 Member States[1], 17 of which found some type of MRSA in their holdings with breeding pigs and 7 none at all. On average, different types of MRSA were found in 1 out of 4 holdings with breeding pigs across the EU, but the survey also says that figures vary greatly between Member States. MRSA ST398 was the most reported type of MRSA among the holdings with breeding pigs in the EU; some Member States also reported other types, but their prevalence was much lower[2].

MRSA is a major concern for public health and its various types are recognised as an important cause of hospital-acquired (or nosocomial) infections in humans. The specific type MRSA ST398 has been identified in some domestic animals and is considered an occupational health risk for farmers, veterinarians and their families, who may become exposed to it through direct or indirect contact with these animals. In an opinion published earlier this year, EFSA’s Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) Panel assessed the public health significance of MRSA in animals and food[3] and concluded that the MRSA ST398[4] strain is less likely to contribute to the spread of MRSA in hospitals than other types carried by humans. The Panel also said that there is currently no evidence that MRSA ST398 can be transmitted to humans by eating or handling contaminated food.

In the survey published today, EFSA recommends monitoring of pigs and other food producing animals for MRSA. It also says further research should be carried out, so that the reasons for differences in the prevalence of MRSA in the various Member States can be identified and used to propose options on possible control measures.

_________________________________________ Note to editors:

The Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that can be persistently or intermittently carried by healthy humans and is a very common cause of minor skin infections that usually do not require treatment. In patients in hospitals, Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of hospital-acquired infections. Its variant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged in the 1970s and is now often found in hospitals in many European Member States. MRSA is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. In recent years, clones of MRSA have evolved outside the hospitals, causing infections among people who have no connection with hospitals. Most recently MRSA has also been detected in several farm animal species.

EFSA’s Zoonoses Unit monitors and analyses the situation on zoonoses, zoonotic agents, antimicrobial resistance, microbiological contaminants and food-borne outbreaks across Europe. The Unit is supported by a Task Force on Zoonoses Data Collection consisting of a pan-European network of national representatives of Member States, other reporting countries, as well as World Health Organisation (WHO) and World organisation for animal health (OIE). They gather each year data in their respective countries.

EFSA’s BIOHAZ Panel provides scientific advice on biological hazards in relation to food safety and food-borne diseases. This covers food-borne zoonoses (animal diseases transmissible to humans), Transmissible spongiform Encephalopathies (BSE/TSEs), food microbiology, food hygiene and associated waste management issues. The Panel’s risk assessment work helps to provide a sound foundation for European policies and legislation and supports risk managers in taking effective and timely decisions.

Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in holdings with breeding pigs, in the EU, 2008 [1] - Part A: MRSA prevalence estimates

EFSA’s previous work on MRSA:

EFSA’s BIOHAZ Panel “Assessment of the Public Health significance of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals and foods” Joint scientific report of ECDC, EFSA and EMEA on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in livestock, companion animals and food

Joint Opinion of ECDC, EFSA, EMEA and SCENIHR on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) focused on zoonotic infections

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[1] The sampling took place during 2008. Dust samples were taken in the environment of pigs in a total of 5,073 holdings from 24 EU Member States and two non-Member States. The pooled sample of each holding was tested for the presence of the various MRSA strains. [2] Only six Member States and one non-Member State reported MRSA non-ST398 in the holdings with breeding pigs. The prevalence of MRSA non-ST398 in holdings with breeding pigs across the participating Member States was substantially lower than the prevalence of MRSA and MRSA ST398. [3] EFSA’s BIOHAZ Panel opinion on the “Assessment of the Public Health significance of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in animals and foods” of March 2009 [4] In its opinion the BIOHAZ Panel refers to CC398 which corresponds to MRSA ST398.



http://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/efsa_locale-1178620753812_1211903070258.htm



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TSS

Friday, January 23, 2009

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Strain ST398 Is Present in Midwestern U.S. Swine and Swine Workers

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Strain ST398 Is Present in Midwestern U.S. Swine and Swine Workers

Tara C. Smith1,2*, Michael J. Male1,2, Abby L. Harper1,2, Jennifer S. Kroeger3, Gregory P. Tinkler2, Erin D. Moritz1,2, Ana W. Capuano1,2, Loreen A. Herwaldt1,3,4, Daniel J. Diekema3,4,5

1 Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America, 2 Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America, 3 Department of Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America, 4 Program of Hospital Epidemiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America, 5 Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America

Abstract Background Recent research has demonstrated that many swine and swine farmers in the Netherlands and Canada are colonized with MRSA. However, no studies to date have investigated carriage of MRSA among swine and swine farmers in the United States (U.S.).

Methods We sampled the nares of 299 swine and 20 workers from two different production systems in Iowa and Illinois, comprising approximately 87,000 live animals. MRSA isolates were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI and EagI restriction enzymes, and by multi locus sequence typing (MLST). PCR was used to determine SCCmec type and presence of the pvl gene.

Results In this pilot study, overall MRSA prevalence in swine was 49% (147/299) and 45% (9/20) in workers. The prevalence of MRSA carriage among production system A's swine varied by age, ranging from 36% (11/30) in adult swine to 100% (60/60) of animals aged 9 and 12 weeks. The prevalence among production system A's workers was 64% (9/14). MRSA was not isolated from production system B's swine or workers. Isolates examined were not typeable by PFGE when SmaI was used, but digestion with EagI revealed that the isolates were clonal and were not related to common human types in Iowa (USA100, USA300, and USA400). MLST documented that the isolates were ST398.

Conclusions These results show that colonization of swine by MRSA was very common on one swine production system in the midwestern U.S., suggesting that agricultural animals could become an important reservoir for this bacterium. MRSA strain ST398 was the only strain documented on this farm. Further studies are examining carriage rates on additional farms.

Citation: Smith TC, Male MJ, Harper AL, Kroeger JS, Tinkler GP, et al. (2008) Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Strain ST398 Is Present in Midwestern U.S. Swine and Swine Workers. PLoS ONE 4(1): e4258. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004258

Editor: Ulrich Dobrindt, University of W├╝rzburg, Germany

Received: October 9, 2008; Accepted: December 19, 2008; Published: January 23, 2008

Copyright: © 2009 Smith et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: This study was funded with departmental startup funds (TCS). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

* E-mail: tara-smith@uiowa.edu

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see full text ;


http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0004258


MRSA

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